training and development methods

Training and development methods are one of the major focus areas of Human Resource Department. Training activities of the organization must increase the skill level of the employees that enables employees to perform better. On the other hand, training and development methods increases employee’s loyalty towards the organization. Organization can implement different training and development programs for employees. It will give good result if overall training and development programs could be designed through proper training need analysis.


Training and Development

Employee training and development is an integrated process aims to contribute in organization’s efficiency through increasing the knowledges and competencies of the employees. This process provides a learning opportunity to the employees for their further career growth. The terms “training” and “development” are used together to describe overall employee learning process. Training refers to the activities taken by the organization to improve present knowledge and skills of the employees for performing a job better. Training is always consider as an employee engagement activity of the organization. Development is organized activity or educational process which focuses on the growth of managerial level employees.


Major Differences Between Training and Development



Training is a reactive process Development is a pro-active process
It has specific and quantifiable goals It concentrates on the broader skills
It’s a short-term process It’s a continuous process
Job oriented Focus oriented
Objective is to improve employees work performances. Objective is to prepare employees for the future challenges.


Training and Development Methods for Employee

There are large number of training and development methods for different level of employees. The various training and development methods can be classified in major 2 categories. These are-

  1. On-the-Job Training Methods
  2. Off-the-Job Training Methods


  1. On-the-Job Training Methods

According to on-the-job training method, trainings are provided during working period to the employees. In this training method, organization initiates actions to improve employee’s competency so that employees can perform better in their current position. On-the-job training method includes-


(1) Job Rotation

Job rotation is a kind of experience-based training in where employee moves through a series of jobs in order to achieve broad range of knowledge and competencies to perform better. Job rotation is particularly useful in small scale business. In every organization there are different types of job and different skills set is required to perform those job. So, when an employee is rotated through different job and he acquired different knowledge from this job rotation. In job rotation method, employee perform different set of responsibilities for a specific period of time. Mentionable that no changes in the pay scale occurred during job rotation process.


(2) Job Instructions Training (JIT)

Job instruction training (JIT) is a method developed by the War Manpower Commission during World War II to train supervisors in large numbers in a short period of time. Job instruction method helps to build employee’s competency as supervisor or trainer provide necessary instruction to improve quality of work. All the steps of a particular job are covered by the trainer. He delivered the right ways or steps through which an employee can easily complete defined task with quality. This method is especially helpful for the new employees where they get opportunity of practical learning.


(3) Committee Assignment

Committee assignment is a method of training where employees solve real life organizational problems through brain storming. Here, organization arrange meeting and create individual committee for solving real life organizational problems. Committee members take those problems as assignment and they try to solve through teamwork. The overall process increases their level of competency.


(4) Coaching

Coaching is an effective training method where employee can gather both theoretical and practical knowledge. Some organization conduct coaching session through outside trainer and some do that by their own coach or trainer.


Benefits of On-the-Job Training Method

  • Improves employee’s competency through practical learning session.
  • It’s an inexpensive training method.
  • Employees enjoyed more as training environment is flexible and trainer is form inhouse personnel most of the time.
  • No work disruption occurred.
  • Found employees more engaged than other types of training.


  1. Off-the-Job Training Methods

Off the job training method is widely used all over the world. In this type of training method, organization arranges training for the employees at a different location which is away from the actual work place. Employees receive theoretical knowledge from this training session. The main purpose of this training and development method is to provide a stress-free training environment to the employees, so that they can concentrate more. This kind of of-the-job training session enables employees to share their innovative ideas for organizational development. Off-the-job training method includes-


(1) Lectures Method

The lecture method is the oldest and most commonly used techniques for training. Lecture method is very well-known to train the white collar or managerial level employees of the organization. In this method of training, trainer deliver organized talks on specific topics. This method is suitable to develop basic theoretical knowledge that must need to acquire before practice. The audiovisual aids are used here and suitable for large audiences.


(2) Conference Method

Conference method combines presentation of information for the participation in small groups with the objectives of developing problem-solving and decision-making capabilities and learning about new and complex materials. Suitable where the application of information is a matter of opinion.


(3) Vestibule Training Method

Vestibule Training Method is mostly used to train technical staff, office staff and employees who deals with different tools and machines in the workplace. Though this training is conducted outside the workplace, employees learn handling of the equipment. Vestibule training method is very famous to the manual workers. Vestibule training method is arranged for the employees when new equipment or tools introduced in the organization.


(4) Case Study Method

In case study method, employees deal with an issue taking it as assignment or case study and come out with the solution. Employee find out solution for the case through in-depth analysis creative thinking that improves employee competency.


(5) Incident Method

In incident method, real incidents are presented to the employees to find out the solution through them. It may be through individual opinion or group discussion.


(6) Simulation Method

This is one of the most renowned off-the-job training method. In this simulation training method, especially designed equipment or machine seems to be used for improving employee’s operative knowledge and skills focusing on proper use in the real field. Simulation training mainly provided through computer or virtual reality device. Simulation method generally used where very expensive machinery or equipment’s are used for performing the job.


(7) Outward Bound Training (OBT) Method

In OBT Method, it is required for the managers and staffs live in cabins or tents for a certain number of days which is situated outside the workplace. Participants have to attend in different test to know their survival skills. They learn about their own personality, hidden potentials, creativity and leadership. OBT is one of the expensive training and development methods. This method is most popular in the developed country.


Benefits of Off-the-Job Training Method

  • Employees can share their innovative ideas for the development of the organization.
  • The method is stress free from present job pressure.
  • Highly time saving methods.
  • It’s an economical training method.
  • Provides comfortable learning environment.


Major Differences Between On-the-Job and Off-the-Job Training Method

On-the-job Training Method

Off-the-job Training Method

Training conducted inside the workplace. Training conducted outside the workplace.
Nature is practical Nature is theoretical
Less time-consuming method More time-consuming method
Learning done through practical task Learning done through delivery of knowledge
Suitable for manufacturing industry Suitable for non-manufacturing industry


Training and Development Objectives

There are lots of training and development objectives and some major objectives defined as bellow-

  1. To create a learning environment among the organization,
  2. To improve employee’s overall skill for performing job better,
  3. To increase knowledge and competency of the employees,
  4. To manage goal achievement strategy of the organization,
  5. To improve employee engagement towards work and productivity.
  6. To improve organizational performance,
  7. To ensure organizational sustainable growth,
  8. To reduce employee absenteeism and accidents,
  9. To keep better work environment,
  10. To increase quality and productivity etc.


Proper implementation of training and development methods can create a positive contribution in organizational growth. Training and development programs for employees can make them motivated, engaged and productive also. Considering overall benefits of training and development methods, every small and large-scale organization should implement an effective training and development programs for employees.


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