Training and development methods are one of the major focus areas of the Human Resource Department. Training activities of the organization must increase the skill level of the employees that enable employees to perform better. On the other hand, training and development methods increase employee’s loyalty towards the organization. Organizations can implement different training and development programs for employees. It will give a good result if overall training and development programs could be designed through proper training need analysis.
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Training and Development
Employee training and development is an integrated process that aims to contribute to an organization’s efficiency through increasing the knowledge and competencies of the employees. Training and development provide a learning opportunity for further career growth of the employees. The terms “training” and “development” are used together to describe the overall employee learning process. Training refers to the activities taken by the organization to improve the present knowledge and skills of the employees for performing a job better. Training is always considered as an employee engagement activity of the organization. Development is the organized activity or educational process which focuses on the growth of managerial level employees.
Major Differences Between Training and Development
|Training is a reactive process||Development is a pro-active process|
|It has specific and quantifiable goals||It concentrates on the broader skills|
|It’s a short-term process||It’s a continuous process|
|Job oriented||Focus oriented|
|The objective is to improve employee’s work performances.||The objective is to prepare employees for future challenges.|
Training and Development Methods for Employee
There is a large number of training and development methods for different levels of employees. The various training and development methods can be classified into major 2 categories, such as-
- On-the-Job Training Methods
- Off-the-Job Training Methods
- On-the-Job Training Methods
According to the on-the-job training method, training is provided during the working period to the employees. In this training method, the organization initiates actions to improve employee’s competency so that employees can perform better in their current position. On-the-job training method includes-
(1) Job Rotation
Job rotation is a kind of experience-based training in where an employee moves through a series of jobs in order to achieve a broad range of knowledge and competencies to perform better. The job rotation process is most useful in small-scale businesses. Different skills set is required to perform different types of job. So, when an employee is rotated through different jobs and acquired different knowledge from this job rotation. In the job rotation method, employees perform different sets of responsibilities for a specific period of time. Mentionable that no changes in the pay scale occurred during the job rotation process.
(2) Job Instructions Training (JIT)
Job Instruction Training (JIT) method was developed during World War II to train supervisors in large numbers in a short period of time by the War Manpower Commission. Job instruction method helps to build employee’s competency as supervisor or trainer provide necessary instruction to improve quality of work. He delivered the right ways or steps through which an employee can easily complete the defined tasks with quality. This JIT method is too much helpful for the new employees, as they get the opportunity of practical learning and competency development.
(3) Committee Assignment
Committee assignment is a method of training where employees solve real-life organizational problems through brainstorming. Here, organizations arrange meetings and create an individual committee for solving real-life organizational problems. Committee members try to solve those problems as assignments through teamwork. The overall process increases their level of competency and trust.
Coaching is an effective training method where employees can gather both theoretical and practical knowledge. Some organizations conduct coaching sessions through the outside trainers and some do that by their own coach or trainer.
Benefits of On-the-Job Training Method
- Improves employee competency through practical learning sessions.
- It’s an inexpensive training method.
- Employees enjoyed more as training environment is flexible and trainer is formed inhouse personnel most of the time.
- No work disruption occurred.
- Found employees more engaged than other types of training.
- Off-the-Job Training Methods
The off-the-job training method is widely used all over the world. In this type of training method, the organization arranges training for the employees at a different location which is away from the actual workplace. Employees receive theoretical knowledge from this training session. This kind of off-the-job training session enables employees to share their innovative ideas for organizational development. Off-the-job training method includes-
(1) Lectures Method
The lecture method is the oldest and most commonly used technique for training. The lecture method is very popular to train the white-collar or managerial level employees of the organization. In this method of training, trainers deliver pre-developed lectures on specific topics. This method is suitable for developing the basic theoretical knowledge that must need to acquire before practice. This method is suitable for large audiences as audiovisual aids are used here for learning purposes.
(2) Conference Method
The conference method combines the presentation of information for participation in small groups with the objectives of developing problem-solving and decision-making capabilities and learning about new and complex materials.
(3) Vestibule Training Method
Vestibule Training Method is mostly used to train technical staff, office staff, and employees who deal with different tools and machines in the workplace. As this training program is conducted outside the workplace, employees can learn to handle the equipment. This training method is very famous for manual workers and it is arranged for the employees when new equipment or tools are introduced in the organization.
(4) Case Study Method
In case study method, employees deal with an issue taking it as an assignment or case study and come out with the solution. Employees find out solutions for the case through in-depth analysis creative thinking that improves employee competency.
(5) Incident Method
In the incident method, real incidents are presented to the employees to find out the solution through them. It may be through individual opinion or group discussion or both.
(6) Simulation Method
This is one of the most renowned off-the-job training methods. In this simulation training method, specially designed equipment or machine seems to be used for improving employee’s operative knowledge and skills focusing on proper use in the real field. Simulation training is mainly provided through computers or virtual reality devices. Simulation methods are generally used where very expensive machinery or types of equipment are used for performing the job.
(7) Outward Bound Training (OBT) Method
In OBT Method, it is required for the managers and staff to live in cabins or tents for a certain number of days which is situated outside the workplace. Participants have to attend different tests to know their survival skills. They learn about their own capability, potentials, personality, creativity, and leadership. Outward Bound Training (OBT) is one of the most expensive trainings and development methods. Outward Bound Training (OBT) method is most popular in the developed country.
Benefits of Off-the-Job Training Method
- Employees can share their innovative ideas for the development of the organization.
- The method is stress-free from present job pressure.
- Highly time-saving methods.
- It’s an economical training method.
- Provides a comfortable learning environment.
Major Differences Between On-the-Job and Off-the-Job Training Method
On-the-job Training Method
Off-the-job Training Method
|Training conducted inside the workplace.||Training conducted outside the workplace.|
|Nature is practical||Nature is theoretical|
|Less time-consuming method||More time-consuming method|
|Learning done through a practical task||Learning done through delivery of knowledge|
|Suitable for the manufacturing industry||Suitable for non-manufacturing industry|
Training and Development Objectives
There are lots of training and development objectives and some major objectives defined as bellow-
- To create a learning environment among the organization,
- To improve employee’s overall skill for performing job better,
- To increase the knowledge and competency of the employees,
- To manage the goal achievement strategy of the organization,
- To improve employee engagement towards work and productivity.
- To improve organizational performance,
- To ensure organizational sustainable growth,
- To reduce employee absenteeism and accidents,
- To keep better work environment,
- To increase quality and productivity etc.
Proper implementation of training and development methods can create a positive contribution to organizational growth. Training and development programs can make employees motivated, engaged, and productive. Considering the overall benefits of training and development methods, every small and large-scale organization should implement effective training and development programs for employees.