Methods for job analysis or how to do a job analysis may be the common asking question related to HR. Job analysis helps organization to identify the basic requirement of any position. There are many methods or ways to conduct an effective job analysis.
Practical Methods for Job Analysis
This is the only direct method from where a HR professional or job analyst can collect job related information practically. Thus, information of this source is very trustworthy. This was the first job analysis methods used by I-O psychologists. The process involves simply watching what an employee does or does not for the specific period. During observation, HR professional or job analyst some time ask question to gather required information.
Interview is methods for job analysis where structured questionnaire used by the HR professional or job analyst. Organization conduct this “interview” job analysis methods using structured interview method or unstructured interview method. In structural interview process, questionnaire is similar for every employee, even due to change of interviewer. On the other hand, interview process may be different due to the change of interviewer.
Critical Incidents Technique
Critical Incident Technique (CIT) is a flexible method for job analysis comprises with set of procedures and used for collecting direct observations of human behaviors related to any specific job. The critical incident technique of job analysis asks supervisors to identify critical aspects of human behavior for a particular job that lead to success or failure. This method of job analysis helps to identify the critical incident or aspects of a job.
Questionnaires and Surveys Method
Some expert incumbents conduct questionnaires or surveys as methods for job analysis. These questionnaires include task statements to identify the form of worker behaviors. Information gathered from questionnaires or surveys can be statistically analyzed in order to provide a more objective record of the components of any job.
Position Analysis Questionnaire Method
The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is very well-known methods for job analysis. The position analysis questionnaire is designed and completed by a trained job analyst. The PAQ was designed to measure job component validity of attributes presented in the aptitude tests. Job component validity is the relationship between test scores and skills required for a good job performance. The position analysis questionnaire has been developed at Purdue University in 1972. The position analysis questionnaire involves a series of detail questions to produce many analysis reports as per the requirement.
Checklists are also used as methods for job analysis, specifically with areas like the Air Force. In the checklist method of job analysis, the HR professional checks the tasks he or she performs from a list of task statements which describe the job. The checklist methods for job analysis is usually used for the development of job descriptions.
Functional Job Analysis Method
Functional job analysis (FJA) is methods for job analysis that was developed by the Employment and Training Administration of the United States Department of Labor. FJA produces focus at standardized occupational information specific to the performance of the work. FJA is a quantitative approach to job analysis that utilizes a compiled inventory of various functions of job.
Hay methods for job analysis is a methodology used by corporate and organizations to map out the job roles in the context of the organizational structure. Long and short type of job profile can be created through this technique of job analysis. Short profile refers to the nature of the job and long profile provides a view on aspects of the role and a score. Typically, Hay system of job evaluations are carried out in a series of steps within the organization. In order to get transparent result, organization should conduct this analysis by an expert.
Role or Purposes of Job Analysis HR
- HR Planning: HR manager can provide good input in case of manpower planning if he has an authentic job analysis report in has hand. This enables him to reduce excessive manpower budget.
- Recruitment and Selection: Through a proper job analysis data, recruiters can easily find out the overall requirements regarding the qualification needed for an employee to perform job properly. This makes overall recruitment and selection process easy and reduces recruitment cost also. Methods for job analysis can help a lot in the constructive selection process.
- Performance Appraisal: Based on job analysis data recruiters can get a good overview of a job that enables him to fix criteria for performance appraisal. Methods for job analysis clearly defines the major objectives of job and helps HR managers to set scalable goals for employees which may be easily reflected in their performance.
- Training and Development: In case of training selection, job analysis data may be helpful for training manager. Training content, training methods and also training evaluation system can be determined based on the report of job analysis.
- Designing Compensation System: Compensation packages are fixed based on performance appraisal report and job analysis methods can make this process easy.
- Succession Planning: Methods for job analysis help recruiters to make an effected succession planning through various technical reports.
Methods for job analysis may differ from organization to organization due to the different of choice. These job analysis methods can give you a quick view of the techniques of job analysis or how to do job analysis. HR professionals should choose the right methods for job analysis for getting best result.