Methods for job analysis or how to do a job analysis is a very common task of HR. HR departments generally do job analysis before posting job circulars for any position. Job analysis helps organizations to identify the basic requirement of any position. There are many methods or ways to conduct an effective job analysis.
Practical Methods for Job Analysis
- Observation Method
This is the only direct method from where an HR professional or job analyst can collect job-related information practically. Thus, the information of this source is very trustworthy. This job analysis method was first used by I-O psychologists. In this process, generally it has been observed what an employee does or does not for a specific period. During observation, HR professionals or job analysts sometimes ask questions to gather the required information.
- Interview Method
The interview is a method for job analysis where a structured questionnaire is used by the HR professional or job analyst. Organizations conduct these “interview” job analysis methods using structured interview methods or unstructured interview methods. In the structural interview process, the questionnaire is similar for every employee, even due to the change of interviewer. On the other hand, the interview process may be different due to the change of interviewer.
- Critical Incidents Technique
Critical Incident Technique (CIT) is known as a flexible method for job analysis and comprised of a set of procedures used for collecting direct observations of human behaviors related to any specific job. The critical incident technique of job analysis asks supervisors to identify critical aspects of human behavior for a particular job that lead to success or failure. This method of job analysis helps to identify the critical incident or aspects of a job.
- Questionnaires and Surveys Method
Questionnaires and surveys method is used by the expert for job analysis. These questionnaires include task statements to identify the form of worker behaviors. Information gathered from questionnaires or surveys can be statistically analyzed in order to provide a more objective record of the components of any job.
- Position Analysis Questionnaire Method
The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a very well-known method for job analysis. The position analysis questionnaire is designed and completed by a trained job analyst. The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) was specially designed to measure the job component validity. Here, Job component validity is the relationship between test scores and skills required for good job performance. The position analysis questionnaire was first developed at Purdue University in 1972. The position analysis questionnaire involves a series of detailed questions to produce many analysis reports as per the requirement.
- Checklists Method
Checklists are also used as methods for job analysis, specifically with areas like the Air Force. In the checklist method of job analysis, the HR professional checks the tasks he or she performs from a list of task statements that describe the job. The checklist methods for job analysis are usually used for the development of job descriptions.
- Functional Job Analysis Method
Functional job analysis (FJA) is a method for job analysis that was developed by the Employment and Training Administration of the United States Department of Labor. FJA focuses on the standardization of occupational information specific to the performance of the work. FJA is a quantitative approach to job analysis that utilizes a compiled inventory of various functions of the job.
- Hay System
Hay methods are used by the organizations to map out the job roles in the context of the organizational structure. Long and short types of job profiles can be created through this technique of job analysis. A short profile refers to the nature of the job and a long profile provides a view on aspects of the role and a score. Typically, the Hay system of job evaluations is carried out in a series of steps within the organization. In order to get transparent results, the organization should conduct this analysis by an expert.
Purposes of Job Analysis at HR
- HR Planning: The HR manager can provide good input in case of manpower planning if he has an authentic job analysis report in his hand. This enables him to reduce the excessive manpower budget.
- Recruitment and Selection: Through proper job analysis data, recruiters can easily find out the overall requirements regarding the qualification needed for an employee to perform the job properly. This makes the overall recruitment and selection process easy and reduces recruitment costs also. Methods for a job analysis can help a lot in the constructive selection process.
- Performance Appraisal: Based on job analysis data recruiters can get a good overview of a job that enables them to fix criteria for performance appraisal. Methods for job analysis clearly define the major objectives of the job and helps HR managers to set scalable goals for employees which may be easily reflected in their performance.
- Training and Development: In the case of training selection, job analysis data may be helpful for the training managers. Training content, training methods, and also training evaluation system can be determined based on the report of job analysis.
- Designing Compensation System: Compensation packages are fixed based on performance appraisal reports and job analysis methods can make this process easy.
- Succession Planning: Methods for job analysis help recruiters to make an effected succession planning through various technical reports.
Methods for job analysis may differ from organization to organization due to the difference of choice. These job analysis methods can give you a quick view of the techniques of job analysis or how to do a job analysis. HR professionals should choose the right methods for job analysis for getting the best result.